The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education

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Women of Color Against Violence, ed. Anthology South End Press, Joy James, ed. Davis Reader Blackwell, New York University Press, , — Laura McTighe, with Deon Haywood. Dorothy Roberts. New York: Vintage, Week Henry Ruth and Kevin R. Primary Sources and Multimedia Michael J. Prison Policy Initiative , website. Tara Herivel and Paul Wright, eds. Matt Meyer, ed. Erica R. Meiners, For the Children? Geoff K. The End of Policing Angela J.

Davis, ed. James Forman Jr.

Executive Summary

Jordan T. Camp and Christina Heatherton, eds. Carey, and Liat Ben-Moshe, eds. Jenna M.

Juvenile incarceration and its impact on high school graduation rates and adult jail time

Loyd, Matt Michelson, and Andrew Burridge, eds. Eric Stanley and Nat Smith, eds. Bruce Franklin, ed. Tara Green, ed. Prison Regime University of Minnesota Press, Doran Larson, ed. Susan Burton, Becoming Mrs. Raul R. A History of the U. Border Patrol University of California Press, University of Washington, , — Immigration Prisons University of California Press, Policy University of Pennsylvania Press, Future research is needed to test for causal sequencing, which in the absence of a prospective design, could be explored by screening incarcerated men for post-traumatic stress disorder, a disorder causally related to trauma exposure.

The associations, however, reported herein shed important preliminary light on the nature and extent of trauma within a large sample of incarcerated men, and its relationship to treatment seeking and symptoms of psychopathology. Second, sample bias is possible. Our sample excluded certain types of inmates e.

Hence, our research findings apply only to the population of incarcerated men who are held in general population. People who decline to participate in research may be different from those who participate.

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Identifying these differences is challenging because refusers decline to be interviewed. We did compare the demographic characteristics of refusers to participants. Nonrepresentativeness was tested in terms of gender, age, and ethnicity no significant differences were found and adjusted for in the weighting strategy. Yet these characteristics and adjustments may not fully predict variation between the sample and the population. Third, biased reporting may have occurred. Audio-CASI is the most reliable method for collecting information about activities or events that are shaming or stigmatizing.

By using audio-CASI, we minimized the motivation to not reveal trauma exposure. To limit mono-method bias among respondents, we used standardized instruments Buss-Perry Aggression Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale that have strong psychometric properties. Our measures of interpersonal and self-regulation problems are not based on scales; rather, they are based on groupings of responses to questions that focus on these problem areas. These groupings of problems are suggestive of problems of getting along with others or regulating particular problematic behaviors. Fourth, emotional abuse is measured by abandonment.

We left it unspecified because, during the pilot testing of the survey instrument, a group of previously incarcerated men living in a halfway house noted that we did not ask about abandonment. Examples of abandonment provided were adoption, foster care, left with strangers or in public places, emotional rejection, failure to communicate, rejection when convicted, as well as others. The predictive strength of abandonment on psychopathology suggests an area of future research that would deconstruct the meaning of abandonment for this population and construct a scale that captured its meaning.

Despite these limitations, the present study has important implications for practice and suggests areas for future research. First, on the practice side, our findings suggest the importance of screening for trauma-related disorders particularly PTSD and to provide trauma-informed treatment for incarcerated men. Both of these interventions have been found generally effective in terms of reductions in PTSD symptoms in quasi-experimental or small pilot studies, often without randomization.

And on the research front, areas of new investigation would explore the meaning and impact of abandonment on the psychopathology of inmates and the connections among trauma exposure, psychopathology, and criminal behavior in an effort to prevent future criminality. Our findings also warrant replication in other male incarcerated samples to test for generalizability , as well as among male samples drawn from juvenile detention and probation. Since our findings only pertain to incarcerated men, it is also important to know whether and how associations among trauma and psychopathology may differ for incarcerated females.

Research evidence consistently finds elevated rates of trauma among incarcerated samples. Our study provides evidence that trauma exposure among incarcerated men is associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. The first next step is treatment for trauma and its consequences inside correctional settings. This is particularly important for incarcerated men—a largely neglected population.

Historically, research attention has focused on the psychological needs and problems of incarcerated women, not those of men. This study and its array of findings is a call to action; action to screen for and treat trauma-related disorders and behaviors among incarcerated men and to study the effectiveness of trauma-informed interventions on psychological and criminal justice e.

As researchers and practitioners, we need to resist the practice of abandoning and neglecting this group of serially and variably traumatized men. Descriptive statistics for dependent and independent variables, adult male respondents. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online May Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. Keywords: trauma exposure, childhood trauma, incarcerated men, behavioral health.

Methods 2. Setting The study population was drawn from 10 adult prisons for men operated under the auspices of a State Department of Corrections located in the northeast of the United States. Instrument The survey was divided into four parts: reentry readiness and programming, personal well being, abuse history, and background information. Procedures The survey was administered using audio computer-assisted self interviews A-CASI and was available in English and Spanish, which accommodated the language needs of the inmate population.

Variables Sociodemographic. Weighting Weights were constructed to adjust the sampled population to the full population for different probabilities of selection due to different response rates among facilities and non-response bias. Descriptive Analysis Mean and percentages were estimated based on weighted valid numbers. Statistical Analysis 2.

Missing Data The loss of information from missing data was small; each variable used in the analysis had a relatively small number of missing data range: 0. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Model The sample of inmates in the adult male prisons is nested within facility requiring that we account for the dependence among inmates within the same facility.

Results 3. Table 1 Prevalence estimates of trauma experienced by incarcerated men by race, type of trauma and age at time of trauma. Open in a separate window. Behavioral Health Treatment and Trauma Experience As shown in Table 2 , overall, men with any type of trauma had higher rates of participation in treatment for depression or anxiety disorder problems i.

Table 2 Prevalence estimates of behavioral health treatment by type of trauma and age at time of trauma. Behavioral Health Problems Related to Trauma Experience Bivariate associations between behavioral health problems and trauma experience may be conflated with other factors affecting behavioral health such as offense type.

Table 3 Coefficients and odds ratios for behavioral health problems by individual characteristics of incarcerated men. Table 4 Coefficients for behavior problems of individual characteristics of incarcerated men. Discussion This study sought to test whether 1 incarcerated males with trauma exposure reported greater use of behavioral health treatment and presence of more psychopathology than those without trauma exposure; 2 childhood trauma exposure significantly predicts psychopathology in adulthood; and 3 types of trauma have differential impacts on psychopathology in adulthood.

Conclusions Research evidence consistently finds elevated rates of trauma among incarcerated samples. Appendix Appendix Descriptive statistics for dependent and independent variables, adult male respondents. Conflict of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Miller-Perrin C. Child Maltreatment: An Introduction.

Stavrianos C. Emotional maltreatment of children. Harlow C. NCJ U. Wolff N. Patterns of victimization among male and female inmates: Evidence of an enduring legacy.

Offering Prisoners a Second Chance Through Education - Freethink Stand Together

Violence Vict. Widom C. Childhood victimization and lifetime revictimization. Child Abus. Trauma and Incarcerated Persons. In: Scott C. The Handbook of Correctional Mental Health. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Child Trends DataBank

Child Maltreatment Garbarino J. Emotional Maltreatment of Children. Henley A. The Abandoned Child. In: Bryant C. Deviancy and the Family. Maniglio R. The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews. Kalmuss D. The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression.

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Marriage Fam. Straus M. Child abuse, neglect, and violent criminal behavior. Ireland T. Childhood victimization and risk for alcohol and drug arrests. Dutton D. Evidence for long-term, specific effects of childhood abuse and neglect on criminal behavior in men. Offender Ther. Chapman D. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Stein J. In: Sage F. Lasting Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Springer K. Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women.

Afifi T. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up.

Fergusson D. Exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse and adjustment in early adulthood. Ballanger J. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety. Breslau M. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community. To better prepare students for survival at college and in life, Ascend requires them to take responsibility for their actions in school rather than rushing to suspend.

For her opening day lesson, she had students analyze an article about a man on a plane that crashed into the Potomac River who continually passed lifelines to other passengers until he drowned. This was to introduce the concept of seva , or selfless service, which the faculty chose as a value to guide the school. Students and families are selecting four more words to live by.

A boy in the front row with an upturned nose and big black backpack told of getting in a fight and telling off an administrator. A second boy said he was suspended after speaking negatively about a teacher. She nodded all too knowingly. When Josef was in seventh grade, he was assigned to a class of students with disciplinary problems at the public junior high. Then, finally, she enrolled him in parochial school, but he was quickly expelled after clashing with a nun. She tried boarding school, but he was kicked out after cursing at a teacher.

The experience with failure, it never left. Her father insisted that she apply herself to get into college no matter how hard life was, even after she became a teen mom. Occupying the sixth floor of a beautifully restored historic theater that now houses three schools in the Ascend charter network, its physical space rivals that of an elite private academy.

Four of the five teachers on her staff came together from another school with the vision of creating well-rounded citizens who serve their communities. Will that be enough to give students the kind of life she dreamed of when she was growing up in Brooklyn?

Related: How some high schools are closing the income gap among graduates. Even with its innovative structure, Ascend faces plenty of challenges. Over the summer, every family had a personal meeting with her or a second administrator she brought on to help oversee instruction and student services and troubleshoot wherever needed.

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These choices partly stem from her experience starting an all-girls charter school in Albany with both ninth and 10th grades in Answering to a board that did not provide necessary support, she was never able to establish the culture or performance she wanted, and attrition was high. She left after four years, though the school remains open. Related: Once sold as the solution, small high schools are now on the back burner. She took a less demanding position in mid-level administration at a Bronx charter school, but she longed to make a bigger impact for youth. For a troubled child, high school can be the end of the line.

The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education
The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education
The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education
The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education
The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education The Boy With The Gun: From Incarceration to Higher Education

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