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Hence on the 24th of July a new agreement was signed, by which the resident-general acquired initiative as well as consultative competence to enact and enforce laws and ordinances, to appoint and remove Korean officials, and to place capable Japanese subjects in the ranks of the administration. That it was inevitable seemed to be equally obvious. For there existed in Korea nearly all the worst abuses of medieval systems. The administration of justice depended solely on favour or interest.

The police contributed by corruption and incompetence to the insecurity of life and property. The troops were a body of useless mercenaries. Offices being allotted by sale, thousands of incapables thronged the ranks of the executive. The finances of the throne and those of the state were hopelessly confused. There was nothing like an organized judiciary. A witness was in many cases considered particeps criminis ; torture was commonly employed to obtain evidence, and defendants in civil cases were placed under arrest. Imprisonment meant death or permanent disablement for a man of small means.

Flogging so severe as to cripple, if not to kill, was a common punishment; every major offence from robbery upward was capital, and female criminals were frequently executed by administering shockingly painful poisons. The currency was in a state of the utmost confusion. Extreme corruption and extortion were practised in connexion with taxation.

Finally, while nothing showed that the average Korean lacked the elementary virtue of patriotism, there had been repeated proofs that the safety and independence of the empire counted for little in the estimates of political intriguers. Japan must either step out of Korea altogether or effect drastic reforms there. In the summer of the resident-general advised the Throne to disband the standing army as an unserviceable and expensive force. The measure was doubtless desirable, but the docility of the troops had been over-rated.

Some of them resisted vehemently, and many became the nucleus of an insurrection which lasted in a desultory manner for nearly two years; cost the lives of 21, insurgents and Japanese; and entailed upon Japan an outlay of nearly a million sterling. She had also lost the veteran statesman Prince Ito, who was assassinated at Harbin by a Korean fanatic on the 26th of October Finally an end was put to an anomalous situation by the annexation of Korea to Japan on the 29th of August See further Korea.

Both describe the processes of creation, but the author of the Chronicles drew largely upon Chinese traditions, whereas the compilers of the Records appear to have limited themselves to materials which they believed to be native. The Records , therefore, have always been regarded as the more trustworthy guide to pure Japanese conceptions. They deal with the creation of Japan only, other countries having been apparently judged unworthy of attention.

They are not immortal: it is explicitly stated that they ultimately pass away, and the idea of the cosmographers seems to be that each deity marks a gradual approach to human methods of procreation. Upon this land the two deities descend, and, by ordinary processes, beget the islands of Japan as well as numerous gods representing the forces of nature.

But in giving birth to the god of fire the creatress Izanami perishes, and the creator Izanagi makes his way to the under-world in search of her—an obvious parallel to the tales of Ishtar and Orpheus. With difficulty he returns to earth, and, as he washes himself from the pollution of Hades, there are born from the turbid water a number of evil deities succeeded by a number of good, just as in the Babylonian cosmogony the primordial ocean, Tiamat, brings forth simultaneously gods and imps.

Finally, as Izanagi washes his left eye the Goddess of the Sun comes into existence; as he washes his right, the God of the Moon; and as he washes his nose, the God of Force. To these three he assigns, respectively, the dominion of the sun, the dominion of the moon, and the dominion of the ocean.

But the god of force Sosanoo , like Lucifer, rebels against this decree, creates a commotion in heaven, and after having been the cause of the temporary seclusion of the sun goddess and the consequent wrapping of the world in darkness, kills the goddess of food and is permanently banished from heaven by the host of deities. He descends to Izumo on the west of the main island of Japan, and there saves a maiden from an eight-headed serpent. Sosanoo himself passes to the under-world and becomes the deity of Hades, but he invests one of his descendants with the sovereignty of Japan, and the title is established after many curious adventures.

Japanese annalists attribute the accession of Jimmu to the year B. Why that date was chosen must remain a matter of conjecture. The Records of Ancient Matters has no chronology, but the more pretentious writers of the Chronicles of Japan , doubtless in imitation of their Chinese models, considered it necessary to assign a year, a month, and even a day for each event of importance.

There is abundant reason, however, to question the accuracy of all Japanese chronology prior to the 5th century. The first date corroborated by external evidence is , and Aston, who has made a special study of the subject, concludes that the year may be taken as the time when the chronology of the Chronicles begins to be trustworthy. Many Japanese, however, are firm believers in the Chronicles , and when assigning the year of the empire they invariably take B. Prehistoric Period. During that long interval the annals include 24 sovereigns, the first 17 of whom lived for over a hundred years on the average.

This campaign of seven years is described in some detail, but no satisfactory information is given as to the nature of the craft in which the invader and his troops voyaged, or as to the number of men under his command. The weapons said to have been carried were bows, spears and swords. A supernatural element is imported into the narrative in the form of the three-legged crow of the sun, which Amaterasu sends down to act as guide and messenger for her descendants.

Jimmu died at his palace of Kashiwa-bara in B. In some, perhaps in most, cases the misasagi contains a large vault of great unhewn stones without mortar. The walls of this vault converge gradually towards the top, which is roofed in by enormous slabs of stone weighing many tons each. The entrance is by means of a gallery roofed with similar stones. The reigns of the eight sovereigns who succeeded Jimmu were absolutely uneventful. Nothing is set down except the genealogy of each ruler, the place of his residence and his burial, his age and the date of his death.

It was then the custom—and it remained so until the 8th century of the Christian era—to change the capital on the accession of each emperor; a habit which effectually prevented the growth of any great metropolis. During his era the land was troubled by pestilence and the people broke out in rebellion; calamities which were supposed to be caused by the spirit of the ancient ruler of Izumo to avenge a want of consideration shown to his descendants by their supplanters. Divination—by a Chinese process—and visions revealed the source of trouble; rites of worship were performed in honour of the ancient ruler, his descendant being entrusted with the duty, and the pestilence ceased.

We now hear for the first time of vigorous measures to quell the aboriginal savages, doubtless the Ainu. Four generals are sent out against them in different directions. In connexion with these incidents, curious evidence is furnished of the place then assigned to woman by the writers of the Chronicles. All these things rest solely on the testimony of annalists writing eight centuries later than the era they discuss and compiling their narrative mostly from tradition. Careful investigations have been made to ascertain whether the histories of China and Korea corroborate or contradict those of Japan.

Without entering into detailed evidence, the inference may be at once stated that the dates given in Japanese early history are just years too remote; an error very likely to occur when using the sexagenary cycle, which constituted the first method of reckoning time in Japan. But although this correction suffices to reconcile some contradictory features of Far-Eastern history, it does not constitute any explanation of the incredible longevity assigned by the Chronicles to several Japanese sovereigns, and the conclusion is that when a consecutive record of reigns came to be compiled in the 8th century, many lacunae were found which had to be filled up from the imagination of the compilers.

With this parenthesis we may pass rapidly over the events of the next two centuries 29 B. Expeditions are led against them in both regions by Prince Yamato-dake, a hero revered by all succeeding generations of Japanese as the type of valour and loyalty. The sovereign had partly ceased to follow the example of Jimmu, who led his armies in person. The emperors did not, however, pass a sedentary life. They frequently made progresses throughout their dominions, and on these occasions a not uncommon incident was the addition of some local beauty to the Imperial harem.

Woman continues to figure conspicuously in the story. The image of the sun goddess, enshrined in Ise 5 B. The reign of Suinin saw the beginning of an art destined to assume extraordinary importance in Japan—the art of wrestling—and the first champion, Nomi no Sukune, is honoured for having suggested that clay figures should take the place of the human sacrifices hitherto offered at the sepulture of Imperial personages.

We find evidence also that the sway of the throne had been by this time widely extended, for in a governor-general of 15 provinces is nominated, and two years later, governors miyakko are appointed in every province and mayors inaki in every village. The number or names of these local divisions are not given, but it is explained that mountains and rivers were taken as boundaries of provinces, the limits of towns and villages being marked by roads running respectively east and west, north and south.

An incident is now reached which the Japanese count a landmark in their history, though foreign critics are disposed to regard it as apocryphal. It is the invasion of Korea by a Japanese army under the command of the empress Invasion of Korea. Jingo, in But the emperor refuses to believe in the existence of any such country, and heaven punishes his incredulity with death at the hands of the Kuma-so, according to one account; from the effects of disease, according to another.

The calamity is concealed; the Kuma-so are subdued, and the empress, having collected a fleet and raised an army, crosses to the state of Silla in Korea , where, at the spectacle of her overwhelming strength, the Korean monarch submits without fighting, and swears that until the sun rises in the west, until rivers run towards their sources, and until pebbles ascend to the sky and become stars, he will do homage and send tribute to Japan. His example is followed by the kings of the two other states constituting the Korean peninsula, and the warlike empress returns triumphant.

Many supernatural elements embellish the tale, but the features which chiefly discredit it are that it abounds in anachronisms, and that the event, despite its signal importance, is not mentioned in either Chinese or Korean history. It is certain that China then possessed in Korea territory administered by Chinese governors. She must therefore have had cognisance of such an invasion, had it occurred. There can be no doubt that the early Japanese were an aggressive, enterprising people, and that their nearest over-sea neighbour suffered much from their activity.

Nor can there be any reasonable doubt that the Jingo tale contains a large germ of truth, and is at least an echo of the relations that existed between Japan and Korea in the 3rd and 4th centuries. Chinese history, which is incomparably older and more precise than Korean, is by no means silent about Japan. Long notices occur in the later Han and Wei records 25 to These annals go on to say that between and civil war prevailed for several years, and order was finally restored by a female sovereign, who is described as having been old and unmarried; much addicted to magic arts; attended by a thousand females; dwelling in a palace with lofty pavilions surrounded by a stockade and guarded by soldiers; but leading such a secluded life that few saw her face except one man who served her meals and acted as a medium of communication.

There can be little question that this queen was the empress Jingo who, according to Japanese annals, came to the throne in the year A. In one point, however, the Chinese historians are certainly incorrect. They represent tattooing as universal in ancient Japan, whereas it was confined to criminals, in whose case it played the part that branding does elsewhere.

Centuries later, in feudal days, the habit came to be practised by men of the lower orders whose avocations involved baring the body, but it never acquired vogue among educated people. In other respects these ancient Chinese annals must be credited with remarkable accuracy in their description of Japan and the Japanese. The Stone Age was forgotten by them—or nearly so—and the evidence points to their never having passed through a genuine Bronze Age, though the knowledge of bronze was at a later period introduced from the neighbouring continent.

They used iron for manufacturing spears, swords and knives of various shapes, and likewise for the more peaceful purpose of making hooks wherewith to angle or to fasten the doors of their huts. Their other warlike and hunting implements besides traps and gins, which appear to have been used equally for catching beasts and birds and for destroying human enemies were bows and arrows, spears and elbow-pads—the latter seemingly of skin, while special allusion is made to the fact that the arrows were feathered. Perhaps clubs should be added to the list.

Of the bows and arrows, swords and knives, there is perpetual mention, but nowhere do we hear of the tools with which they were manufactured, and there is the same remarkable silence regarding such widely spread domestic implements as the saw and the axe. We hear, however, of the pestle and mortar, of the fire-drill, of the wedge, of the sickle, and of the shuttle used in weaving.

Navigation seems to have been in a very elementary state. Indeed the art of sailing was but little practised in Japan even so late as the middle of the 10th century of our era, subsequent to the general diffusion of Chinese civilization, though rowing and punting are often mentioned by the early poets.

To what we should call towns or villages very little reference is made anywhere in the Records or in that part of the Chronicles which contain the account of the so-called Divine Age. But from what we learn incidentally it would seem that the scanty population was chiefly distributed in small hamlets and isolated dwellings along the coast and up the course of the larger streams.

Of house-building there is frequent mention. Fences were in use. Rugs of skins and rush-matting were occasionally brought in to sit on, and we even hear once or twice of silk rugs being used for the same purpose by the noble and wealthy. The habits of personal cleanliness which so pleasantly distinguish the modern Japanese from their neighbours, in continental Asia, though less fully developed than at present would seem to have existed in the germ in early times, as we read more than once of bathing in rivers, and are told of bathing women being specially attached to the person of a certain Imperial infant.

Lustrations, too, formed part of the religious practices of the race. Latrines are mentioned several times. They would appear to have been situated away from the houses and to have been generally placed over a running stream, whence doubtless the name for latrine in the archaic dialect— kawaya river-house.

A peculiar sort of dwelling-place which the two old histories bring prominently under our notice is the so-called parturition house—a one-roomed hut without windows, which a woman was expected to build and retire into for the purpose Of being delivered unseen. Castles are not distinctly spoken of until a time which coincides, according to the received chronology, with the first century B. We then first meet with the curious term rice-castle, whose precise signification is a matter of dispute among the native commentators, but which, on comparison with Chinese descriptions of the early Japanese, should probably be understood to mean a kind of palisade serving the purpose of a redoubt, behind which the warriors could ensconce themselves.

Rice is the only cereal of which there is such mention made as to place it beyond a doubt that its cultivation dates back to time immemorial. Beans, millet and barley are indeed named once, together with silkworms, in the account of the Divine Age. But the passage has every aspect of an interpolation in the legend, perhaps not dating back long before the time of the eighth-century compiler.

A few unimportant vegetables and fruits, of most of which there is but a single mention, are found. The intoxicating liquor called sake was known in Japan during the mythical period, and so were chopsticks for eating food with. Cooking pots and cups and dishes—the latter both of earthenware and of leaves of trees—are also mentioned; but of the use of fire for warming purposes we hear nothing. Tables are named several times, but never in connexion with food: they would seem to have been used exclusively for the purpose of presenting offerings on, and were probably quite small and low—in fact, rather trays than tables, according to European ideas.

In the use of clothing and the specialization of garments the early Japanese had reached a high level. We read in the most ancient legends of upper garments, skirts, trowsers, girdles, veils and hats, while both sexes adorned themselves with necklaces, bracelets and head ornaments of stones considered precious—in this respect offering a striking contrast to their descendants in modern times, of whose attire jewelry forms no part. The material of their clothes was hempen cloth and paper—mulberry bark, coloured by being rubbed with madder, and probably with woad and other tinctorial plants.

All the garments, so far as we may judge, were woven, sewing being nowhere mentioned. From the great place which the chase occupied in daily life, we are led to suppose that skins also were used to make garments of. Combs are mentioned, and it is evident that much attention was devoted to the dressing of the hair.

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The men seem to have bound up their hair in two bunches, one on each side of the head, while the young boys tied theirs in a top-knot, the unmarried girls let their locks hang down over their necks, and the married women dressed theirs after a fashion which apparently combined the two last-named methods. There is no mention in any of the old books of cutting the hair or beard except in token of disgrace; neither do we gather that the sexes, but for the matter of the head-dress, were distinguished by a diversity of apparel and ornamentation. With regard to the precious stones mentioned above as having been used as ornaments for the head, neck and arms, we know from the specimens which have rewarded the labours of archaeological research in Japan that agate, crystal, glass, jade, serpentine and steatite were the most used materials, and carved and pierced cylindrical shapes the commonest forms.

The horse—which was ridden, but not driven—the barn-door fowl and the cormorant used for fishing, are the only domesticated creatures mentioned in the earlier traditions, with the doubtful exception of the silkworm. In the later portions of the Records and Chronicles dogs and cattle are alluded to, but sheep, swine and even cats were apparently not yet introduced.

As the prehistoric era draws to its end the above analyses of Japanese civilization have to be modified. Thus, towards the close of the 3rd century, ship-building made great progress, and instead of the small boats hitherto in use, a vessel ft. The date assigned by the Chronicles for this important event is A. Hence the introduction of calligraphy must be placed in Chinese history shows that between 57 and Japan sent four embassies to the courts of the Han and the Wei, and this intercourse cannot have failed to disclose the ideograph.

But the knowledge appears to have been confined to a few interpreters, and not until the year were steps taken to extend it, with the aid of a learned Korean, Wang-in. Korea herself began to study Chinese learning only a few years before she undertook to impart it to Japan. We now find a numerous colony of Koreans passing to Japan and settling there; a large number are also carried over as prisoners of war, and the Japanese obtain seamstresses from both of their continental neighbours. One fact, related with much precision, shows that the refinements of life were in an advanced condition: an ice-house is described, and we read that from ?

The emperor, Nintoku, to whose time this innovation is attributed, is one of the romantic figures of Japanese history. After three years of this mutual self-effacement, during which the throne remained vacant, the younger brother committed suicide, and Nintoku reluctantly became sovereign. He chose Naniwa the modern Osaka for his capital, but he would not take the farmers from their work to finish the building of a palace, and subsequently, inferring from the absence of smoke over the houses of the people that the country was impoverished, he remitted all taxes and suspended forced labour for a term of three years, during which his palace fell into a state of ruin and he himself fared in the coarsest manner.

Digging canals, damming rivers, constructing roads and bridges, and establishing granaries occupied his attention when love did not distract it. But in affairs of the heart he was most unhappy. We shall err little if we date the commencement of Japanese written annals from this time, though no compilation earlier than the Kojiki has survived. Early Historical Period. Conspicuous loyalty towards the sovereign was not an attribute of the Japanese Imperial family in early times. Attempts to usurp the throne were not uncommon, though there are very few instances of such essays on the part of a subject.

Love or lust played no insignificant part in the drama, and a common method of placating an irate sovereign was to present a beautiful damsel for his delectation. The veto of consanguinity did not receive very strict respect in these matters. Children of the same father might intermarry, but not those of the same mother; a canon which becomes explicable on observing that as wives usually lived apart from their husbands and had the sole custody of their offspring, two or more families often remained to the end unconscious of the fact that they had a common sire.

There was a remarkable tendency to organize the nation into groups of persons following the same pursuit or charged with the same functions. A group thus composed was called be. The provincial districts were ruled by scions of the Imperial family, who appear to have been, on the whole, entirely subservient to the Throne. There were no tribunals of justice: the ordeal of boiling water or heated metal was the sole test of guilt or innocence, apart, of course, from confession, which was often exacted under menace of torture.

A celebrated instance of the ordeal of boiling water is recorded in , when this device was employed to correct the genealogies of families suspected of falsely claiming descent from emperors or divine beings. The test proved efficacious, for men conscious of forgery refused to undergo the ordeal. Deprivation of rank was the lightest form of punishment; death the commonest, and occasionally the whole family of an offender became serfs of the house against which the offence had been committed or which had been instrumental in disclosing a crime.

There are, however, frequent examples of wrong-doing expiated by the voluntary surrender of lands or other property. We find several instances of that extreme type of loyalty which became habitual in later ages—suicide in preference to surviving a deceased lord. But there were two notable exceptions—Yuriaku and Muretsu The former slew men ruthlessly in fits of passion or resentment, and the latter was the Nero of Japanese history, a man who loved to witness the agony of his fellows and knew no sentiment of mercy or remorse.

Yet even Yuriaku did not fail to promote industrial pursuits. Skilled artisans were obtained from Korea, and it is related that, in , this monarch induced the empress and the ladies of the palace to plant mulberry trees with their own hands in order to encourage sericulture. Throughout the 5th and 6th centuries many instances are recorded of the acquisition of landed estates by the Throne, and their occasional bestowal upon princes or Imperial consorts, such gifts being frequently accompanied by the assignment of bodies of agriculturists who seem to have accepted the position of serfs.

Meanwhile Chinese civilization was gradually becoming known, either by direct contact or through Korea. Several immigrations of Chinese or Korean settlers are on record. No less than householders of Chinese subjects came, through Korea, in , and one of their number received high rank together with the post of director of the Imperial treasury. From these facts, and from a national register showing the derivation of all the principal families in Japan, it is clearly established that a considerable strain of Chinese and Korean blood runs in the veins of many Japanese subjects.

The most signal and far-reaching event of this epoch was the importation of the Buddhist creed, which took place in A Korean monarch acted as propagandist, sending a special envoy with a bronze image of the Buddha and Introduction of Buddhism. Unfortunately the coming of the foreign faith happened to synchronize with an epidemic of plague, and conservatives at the Imperial court were easily able to attribute this visitation to resentment on the part of the ancestral deities against the invasion of Japan by an alien creed.

Thus the spread of Buddhism was checked; but only for a time. Thirty-five years after the coming of the Sutras, the first temple was erected to enshrine a wooden image of the Buddha 16 ft. It has often been alleged that the question between the imported and the indigenous cults had to be decided by the sword. The statement is misleading. That the final adoption of Buddhism resulted from a war is true, but its adoption or rejection did not constitute the motive of the combat. From that time the future of Buddhism was assured.

In Korea sent Buddhist relics, Buddhist priests, Buddhist ascetics, architects of Buddhist temples, and casters of Buddhist images. She had already sent men learned in divination, in medicine, and in the calendar. The building of temples began to be fashionable in the closing years of the 6th century, as did also abdication of the world by people of both sexes; and a census taken in , during the reign of the empress Suiko , showed that there were then 46 temples, priests and nuns in the empire. It meant the introduction of Chinese civilization.

Priests and scholars crossed in numbers from China, and men passed over from Japan to study the Sutras at what was then regarded as the fountain-head of Buddhism. There was also a constant stream of immigrants from China and Korea, and the result may be gathered from the fact that a census taken of the Japanese nobility in indicated Korean and Chinese families against only of pure Japanese origin. The records show that in costume and customs a signal advance was made towards refinement. In some respects, however, there was no improvement. The succession to the throne still tended to provoke disputes among the Imperial princes; the sword constituted the principal weapon of punishment, and torture the chief judicial device.

Now, too, for the first time, a noble family is found seeking to usurp the Imperial authority. In all this he was strongly seconded by his son, Iruka, who even surpassed him in contumelious assumption of power and parade of dignity. Prince Furubito, pressed by his brother, Prince Karu, to assume the sceptre in accordance with his right of primogeniture, made his refusal peremptory by abandoning the world and taking the tonsure.

This retirement to a monastery was afterwards dictated to several sovereigns by ministers who found that an active occupant of the throne impeded their own exercise of administrative autocracy. Before a year had passed he conspired to usurp the throne and was put to death with his children, his consorts strangling themselves. Suicide to escape the disgrace of defeat had now become a common practice. Another prominent feature of this epoch was the prevalence of superstition. The smallest incidents—the growing of two lotus flowers on one stem; a popular ballad; the reputed song of a sleeping monkey; the condition of the water in a pond; rain without clouds—all these and cognate trifles were regarded as omens; wizards and witches deluded the common people; a strange form of caterpillar was worshipped as the god of the everlasting world, and the peasants impoverished themselves by making sacrifices to it.

An interesting epoch is now reached, the first legislative era of early Japanese history. The first step of reform consisted in ordering the governors of provinces to prepare registers showing the numbers of freemen and serfs within their jurisdiction as well as the area of cultivated land.

Incidentally to these reforms many of the evil customs of the time are exposed. Thus provincial governors when they visited the capital were accustomed to travel with great retinues who appear to have constituted a charge on the regions through which they passed. Again, men who had acquired some local distinction, though they did not belong to noble families, took advantage of the absence of historical records or official registers, and, representing themselves as descendants of magnates to whom the charge of public granaries had been entrusted, succeeded in usurping valuable privileges.

The office of provincial governor had in many cases become hereditary, and not only were governors largely independent of Imperial control, but also, since every free man carried arms, there had grown up about these officials a population relying largely on the law of force. Punishments were drastic, and in the case of a man convicted of treason, all his children were executed with him, his wives and consorts committing suicide. Torture was freely employed and men often died under it. It has been shown that from early days the numerous scions of the Imperial family had generally been provided for by grants of provincial estates.

Gradually the descendants of these men, and the representatives of great families who held hereditary rank, extended their domains unscrupulously, employing forced labour to reclaim lands, which they let to the peasants, not hesitating to appropriate large slices of public property, and remitting to the central treasury only such fractions of the taxes as they found convenient. So prevalent had the exaction of forced labour become that country-folk, repairing to the capital to seek redress of grievances, were often compelled to remain there for the purpose of carrying out some work in which dignitaries of state were interested.

The removal of the capital to a new site on each change of sovereign involved a vast quantity of unproductive toil. It is recorded that in , when the empress Saimei occupied the throne, a canal was dug which required the work of 30, men and a wall was built which had employed 70, men before its completion. Some of these sepulchres attained enormous dimensions—that of the emperor Ojin measures yds. Moreover, it was forbidden to bury with the body gold, silver, copper, iron, jewelled shirts, jade armour or silk brocade. It appears that the custom of suicide or sacrifice at the tomb of grandees still survived, and that people sometimes cut off their hair or stabbed their thighs preparatory to declaiming a threnody.

All these practices were vetoed. This rite required not only the reading of rituals but also the offering of food and fruits. For the sake of these edibles the rite was often harshly enforced, especially in connexion with pollution from contact with corpses; and thus it fell out that when of two brothers, returning from a scene of forced labour, one lay down upon the road and died, the other, dreading the cost of compulsory purgation, refused to take up the body.

Many other evil customs came into existence in connexion with this rite, and all were dealt with in the new laws. Not the least important of the reforms then introduced was the organization of the ministry after the model of the Tang dynasty of China. Eight departments of state were created, and several of them received names which are similarly used to this day. Not only the institutions of China were borrowed but also her official costumes. Throughout this era intercourse was frequent with China, and the spread of Buddhism continued steadily. By her command several public expositions of the Sutras were given, and the building of temples went on in many districts, estates being liberally granted for the maintenance of these places of worship.

According to their own beliefs, such people received from their gods all that they have, all that they practise, all that they know. Such people, while their blood is unmixed and their society unconquered, adhere to their gods with the utmost fidelity. The bonds which connect a nation with its gods, bonds of faith, and those which connect the individuals of that nation with one another, bonds of blood, are the strongest known to primitive man, and are the only social bonds in prehistoric ages.

This early stage was the one in which even the most advanced group of Indians in America found themselves when the continent was discovered. On the Eastern hemisphere, where there were so [ Pg xxxiii] many races quite distinct and different from one another, the conquest of one race by another, or the conquest of a number of races by one, was frequent and had a great influence on thought and on religion.

The influence of one religion or system of thought on another was sometimes considerable, as the intellectual influence of Egypt on Greece, and sometimes great, as that of Greece on Rome. The influence of the physical conquest of many by one was immense politically and socially, as in the case of Rome, which subdued Greece and, together with Greece, all that Alexander had conquered in Asia and Egypt.

With the conquest and assimilation of Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul, the whole ancient fabric of Keltic thought on the continent gave way, and its chief elements were lost soon after. The last of the ethnic religions of Europe, and one of the most valuable, that of the Lithuanians, continued in perfect condition till the fifteenth century, when it was ended through bloodshed and violence.

This last of the systems of primitive Aryan thought in Europe passed away leaving slight traces. We know the names of some of its divinities; we know that it resembled the Slav, but was more developed, that it had sacred serpents and priestesses who guarded the holy, unquenchable fire; [ Pg xxxiv] but, to the great regret of men of science, we have only small fragments of the system, brief and meagre accounts of it.

If we look closely into the religious history of the Eastern hemisphere, we shall find the position to be approximately as follows,—. Though animals, birds, reptiles, and insects occupy a prominent position in Egyptian religion, it is not evident why they occupy that position. There is no inscription or book to inform us.

The earliest stage of Egyptian religion is lost to us. Egyptian priests, when reproached for the national worship rendered various animals, birds, reptiles, and insects, creatures that were vile, useful, clean, or unclean, as the case might be, were unable to give a cause for the worship. They were unable for the reason that the mythologic account was unknown to them, or had been lost or was unconsidered; whatever the reason, neither papyrus nor inscription explains it.

The chief gods of priestly Egypt answered exactly to the Indian divinities of the second class of myths in America, those which I have called action myths. Among these the sun and the earth were very prominent. If we had that account, it would [ Pg xxxv] explain why there are animals, reptiles, and insects in Egyptian religion.

In Greece those portions of the earliest mythology which were not lost were obscured. The ancient creation myths were either misunderstood, or were unknown to the educated at the period from which the first literary monuments have come down to us. Hesiod arranged and shaped Greek mythology to suit himself and his audience, so that it is quite impossible to learn from that author what the primitive myths of Greece were. If brought before him, he would doubtless have looked on them much as a certain French Algonkin and Iroquois scholar of Canada looked on the myths of America.

The man had an extensive knowledge of Algonkin and Iroquois words, but an utter contempt for Indian thought, and no real knowledge of it whatever. No doubt the earliest creation myths were well known throughout rural Greece among the illiterate, but there was no philosopher of that day who knew their value. There was no man to consider them. Roman mythology, as well as Greek, suffered from literary treatment, and it is only by collecting detached fragments and facts of primitive thought throughout the whole field of classic literature that we are able to get at something beyond the official religion of polished society in Greece and Rome.

From the wreck of ancient Keltic and Teutonic thought much has been saved on the two islands [ Pg xxxvi] of Ireland and Iceland. With this, together with the American system and the mythologic inheritance of the Slav world in Eastern Europe, we shall be able perhaps to obtain materials with which to explain the earliest epoch of Aryan thought, the epoch which corresponds in development with the world of American creation myths.

In that case we shall gain a connected view of Aryan speculation and its methods from those early beginnings when there was no passion or quality apart from a person, when symbols, metaphors, and personifications were in the distant future. The whole problem is to connect the thought of this continent with that of the rest of mankind, but especially and above all with the Aryan and Semitic divisions of it. Fortunately the Arabs, the most poetic of the race, the knightly members of it, have given us in their history one fact of great value. Just before the establishment of the new religion by Mohammed there were in Mecca more than three hundred Arabic divinities, animal, vegetable, and mineral.

We can hardly doubt that the pre-Mohammedan Arabic system of religion was the one which on a time belonged to the whole Semitic race, different among some divisions of it in details, of course, but substantially the same everywhere. This statement of the Arabic condition contains a fact of immense [ Pg xxxvii] significance.

It points to a system exactly like the American. The pre-Mohammedan Arabic was the most splendid and important survival of primitive religion in any historic race on the Eastern Hemisphere. It is proper here to explain the position of spirits in the Indian systems. All the first people are conceived as having bodies as well as spirits. There are no spirits without bodies save an exceptional few who at the time of the metamorphosis of the first people lost the bodies which had belonged to them in their primal condition and received no new bodies at their fall.

This loss of bodies was inflicted as a punishment. These desolate disembodied spirits wander about now in mountains and lonely weird places. Uncanny in character, they are seen rarely, and then only by sorcerers. A good deal has been given to the world of late on mythology by able writers who with good materials would attain good results; but as the materials at their disposal are faulty, much of their work with all its cleverness is mainly a persistent pouring of the empty into the void. We have seen attempts made to show that real gods have been developed by savage men from their own dead savage chiefs.

Such a thing has never been done since the human race began, and it could never have been imagined by any man who knew [ Pg xxxviii] the ideas of primitive races from actual experience or from competent testimony. The most striking thing in all savage belief is the low estimate put on man when unaided by divine, uncreated power. In Indian belief every object in the universe is divine except man. Divinities have an immense range of power, there is an incalculable difference between the greatest and the smallest of them,—some have inconceivable strength and knowledge, while others are measurably weak and of limited intelligence,—but all belong to one category, all are divine, all are extra-human.

Vegetable gods, so called, have been scoffed at by writers on mythology. The scoff is baseless, for the first people were turned, or turned themselves, into trees and various plants as frequently as into beasts and other creatures. Maize or Indian corn is a transformed god who gave himself to be eaten to save man from hunger and death. When Spanish priests saw little cakes of meal eaten ceremonially by Indians, and when the latter informed them that they were eating their god, the good priests thought this a diabolical mockery of the Holy Sacrament, and a blasphemous trick of Satan to ruin poor ignorant Indians.

I have a myth in which the main character is a violent and cruel old personage who is merciless and faith-breaking, who does no end of damage till he is cornered at last by a good hero and turned into the wild parsnip. Before transformation this old parsnip could travel swiftly, but now he must [ Pg xxxix] stay in one place, and of course kills people only when they eat him. The treasure saved to science by the primitive race of America is unique in value and high significance. The first result from it is to carry us back through untold centuries to that epoch when man made the earliest collective and consistent explanation of this universe and its origin.

Occupying this vantage-ground, we can now throw a flood of light on all those mythologies and ethnic religions or systems of thought from which are lost in part, great or small, the materials needed to prove the foundation and beginnings of each of them.

Through amazing ability of primitive man on this continent to retain, or perhaps through his inability to change or go forward, he has preserved a system of thought already old at the time of the first cuneiform letters and of the earliest statements on stone or papyrus. And the discovery of this system of ours coincides almost with the moment when America after a century and a quarter of free political activity, and of intellectual labor unexampled in fruitfulness, takes her due place as a World Power, and enters into intimate and searching relations, not with Europe alone, or one section of mankind, but with the whole human race wherever fixed or resident.

Washington, D. After each name is given that of the beast, bird, or thing into which the personage was changed subsequently. Names on which accents are not placed are accented on the penult. Names of places are explained in the notes. T HE first that we know of Olelbis is that he was in Olelpanti. Whether he lived in another place is not known, but in the beginning he was in Olelpanti on the upper side , the highest [ Pg 4] place. He was in Olelpanti before there was anything down here on the earth, and two old women were with him always. These old women he called grandmother, and each of them we call Pakchuso Pokaila.

There was a world before this one in which we are now. That world lasted a long, long time, and there were many people living in it before the present world and we, the present people, came. One time the people of that first world who were living then in the country about here [1] were talking of those who lived in one place and another. Down in the southwest was a person whose name was Katkatchila. He could kill game wonderfully, but nobody knew how he did it, nor could any one find out.

He did not kill as others did; he had something that he aimed and threw; he would point a hollow stick which he had, and something would go out of it and kill the game. In that time a great many people lived about this place where we are now, and their chief was Torihas Kiemila; these people came together and talked about Katkatchila. To-morrow we will send some one down to invite him. Next morning Torihas sent a messenger to invite Katkatchila; he sent Tsaroki Sakahl, a very quick traveller. Though it was far, Tsaroki went there [ Pg 5] in one day, gave the invitation, and told about Torihas and his people.

Tsaroki went home in the night, and told the people that Katkatchila would come on the following day. Katkatchila had a sister; she had a husband and one child. She never went outdoors herself. She was always in the house. Nobody ever saw the woman or her child. You must stay at home while I am gone. Katkatchila came to a hill up here, went to the top of it, and sat down. From the hill he could see the camp of the people who had invited him. He stayed there awhile and saw many persons dancing. It was in summer and about the middle of the afternoon.

At last Katkatchila went down to where they were dancing, and stopped a little way off. Torihas, who was watching, saw him and said,—.

Katkatchila sat down and looked on. Soon all the people stopped dancing and went to their houses. Torihas had food brought to Katkatchila after his journey. While he was eating, Torihas said to him,—. My people want to dance and hunt. I sent one of them to ask you to come up here. They will dance to-night and go hunting to-morrow. Do not leave home, any of you. Let all stay. We will have a great hunt. Katkatchila, will you stay with us?

They danced all night. Next morning, after they had eaten, and just as they were starting off to hunt, the chief said to his people,—. When they got onto the mountain they saw ten deer. Katkatchila shot without delay; as soon as he shot a deer fell, and Kaisus, who was ready, made a rush and ran up to the deer, but Katkatchila was there before him and had taken out the weapon. He killed all ten of the deer one after another, and Kaisus ran each time to be first at the fallen body, but Katkatchila was always ahead of him.

When they went home Kaisus carried one deer, and told of all they had done, saying,—. Hunt with us to-morrow. Katkatchila agreed to stay. Next morning they went to hunt. Hau went among others, and stayed near Katkatchila all the time. On the mountain they saw ten deer again. Hau was ready to spring forward to get the weapon. The moment the weapon was shot, Hau ran with all his strength, reached the deer first, took out the weapon and hid it in his ear.

That moment Katkatchila was there. I have just come. Katkatchila kept asking all day for his flint, but Hau would neither give it back nor own that he had it. At last, when the sun was almost down, Katkatchila turned to Hau and said,—. It would be better for you to give it back to me, better for you and very much better for your people. You want to keep the flint; well, keep it. You will see something in pay for this, something that will not make you glad. He left the hunt and went away in great anger, travelled all night and was at home next morning.

He went into the sweat-house, took the flint out of his ear and held it on his palm. Every one came and looked at it. It was just a small bit of a thing. He has great power, more power than you think, and he will have vengeance. He will make us suffer terribly. He is stronger than we are. He can do anything.

You will see something dreadful before long. All went in. Hau went last, for he had the flint. They passed the flint from one to another; all looked at it, all examined it. This was Hilit Kiemila. They went out, leaving him alone. As soon as Hilit was alone in the sweat-house, he began to rub the flint with his hands and roll it with his legs Hilit was turned afterward into a house-fly, and that is why house-flies keep rubbing their legs against each other to this day.

He [ Pg 10] wanted to make the flint large. After he had rolled and rubbed the flint all night, it was four or five feet long, and as thick and wide. He let the block fall to the ground and it made a great noise, a very loud noise; people heard it for a long distance. Hilit went out then and said,—.

It may be bad for us to keep it here; bad for us to have it in the sweat-house or the village. They did not know who could carry the great block, it was so heavy. You come seldom; but come now. I have known a long time about Katkatchila. He is very strong. He will do something terrible as soon as daylight comes. I wish you would take this big flint and carry it far away off north. I wish to talk with you. Karili went in. Carry it north for me. It is too heavy.

I am not able to carry it. Why are they unwilling to carry it? Go straight. I will go, too, and when I am on the top of Toriham Pui Toror I will shout, and show you where to put the block. It was just before sunrise. Tilikus and Poharamas went out in front of the house and swept a space clean and smooth; then they ran off to the east and got pine as full of pitch as they could find it.

They brought a great deal of this, split some very fine, and made a large pile there on the smooth place. We will dance to-day. Tichelis has carried that thing far away; all will be well now. The woman never left the house herself, and never let any one carry the child out. She brought the boy out, put him on the smooth place. Poharamas was on the southeast side all ready, and Tilikus on the southwest side. As soon as Yonot put down the baby, they pushed pitch-pine sticks toward it.

That instant fire blazed up. When the fire had caught well Poharamas took a large burning brand of pitch-pine and rushed off to the southeast; Tilikus took another and ran to the southwest. Poharamas, when he reached the southeast where the sky comes to the earth, ran around northward close to the sky; he held the point of his burning brand on the ground, and set fire to everything as he ran. When Tilikus reached the southwest, at the place where the sky touches the earth, he ran northward near the sky.

The two brothers went swiftly, leaving a line of flame behind them, and smoke rose in a cloud with the fire. After the two had started Yonot snatched up [ Pg 13] Pohila, and as she raised the boy a great flame flashed up from the spot. She ran into the house with her son, and put him into the basket where she had kept him till that morning. Some time after sunrise they saw a great fire far away on the east and on the west as well.

Soon all saw that the fire was coming toward them from the east and the west like waves of high water, and the line of it was going northward quickly. The fire made a terrible roar as it burned; soon everything was seething. Everywhere people were trying to escape, all were rushing toward the north.

By the middle of the forenoon the heat and burning were so great that people began to fall down, crying out,—. Torihas made a rush toward the north, and reached the top of Toriham Pui Toror. When he saw the fire coming very near he called out to Tichelis, who was struggling along with the great block of flint on his back,—. Tichelis heard the shouting, but said nothing; kept going northward steadily.

When he was northeast of Bohem Puyuk, he saw the fire coming very fast, a mighty blaze roaring up to the sky. It was coming from the south, east, west. Tichelis [ Pg 14] could go no farther; there was no place for escape above ground; the fire would soon be where he was. The flint had grown very hot from the burning; he threw it down; it had skinned his back, it was so hot and heavy.

He ran under the ground, went as far as he could, and lay there. Presently he heard the fire roaring above him, the ground was burning, he was barely alive; soon all blazed up, earth, rocks, everything. When the brothers Tilikus and Poharamas had carried the fire around the world and met in the north, just half-way between east and west, they struck their torches together and threw them on the ground.

The moment before they joined the burning brands two persons rushed out between them. One was Klabus and the other Tsaroki, who had carried the invitation from Torihas to Katkatchila. They just escaped. The flint rock that Tichelis dropped lies there yet, just where it fell, and when the Wintu people want black flint they find it in that place.

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Katkatchila had a little brother. He put the boy on his back, and went beyond the sky where it touches the earth in the south. Yonot, the mother of Pohila, took her son and went behind the sky; her husband, Tilikus, went with her. Poharamas went to Olelpanti. He flew up to where Olelbis is. He could see nothing but waves of flame; rocks were burning, the ground was burning, everything was burning. Great rolls and piles of smoke were rising; fire flew up toward the sky in flames, in great sparks and brands.

Those sparks became kolchituh sky eyes , and all the stars that we see now in the sky came from that time when the first world was burned. The sparks stuck fast in the sky, and have remained there ever since the time of the wakpohas world fire. Quartz rocks and fire in the rocks are from that time. There was no fire in the rocks before the wakpohas. Tsaroki went up on the eastern side of the sky,—ran up outside.

I wish to build a sweat-house. They dug out and cleared a place for the sweat-house the day before the world-fire began. Olelbis built it in this way: When the two women had dug the foundation, he asked,—. Go then to the west, put your hand out, and there you will touch an oak different from others. He went and got two great white oak trees, pulled them up with the roots, brought them with all the branches, which were covered with acorns.

Olelbis put the great white oak from the south in the middle as the central pillar; then he put the northern black oak on the north side; he put it sloping, so that its branches were on the south side of the house; over against this he put a southeastern white oak sloping in like manner, so that its head came out on the north side. The western oak he planted on the west side, sloping so that its branches hung on the east side; then he put up the two white oaks from the southeast on the east side: six trees in all. The top of each tree was outside opposite its roots; acorns from it fell on the opposite side.

Olelbis wished to fasten the trees firmly together so they should never loosen. She put her hand toward the south, and on it came humus koriluli a plant with beautiful blossoms. She took it with roots, stem, and blossoms and made a long narrow mat, the stem and roots all woven together inside and the blossoms outside.

He did this. The binding was beautiful and very fragrant. He wrapped it around the trees where they came together at the top of the house inside. The two old women made four very large mats now, one for each side of the house. When they had finished it they told Olelbis to put it on the north side of the house. Now take this mat and put it on the east side. They gave him a mat made of the same plant that was used for a binding to hold the top of the house.

A great deal of this plant came, and they made a mat of it. They put all the blossoms outside. The mat covered the south side. The old women gave him all kinds of beautiful plants now, and flowers to form a great bank around the bottom of the sweat-house. All kinds of flowers that are in the world now were gathered around the foot of that sweat-house, an enormous bank of them; every beautiful color and every sweet odor in the world was there.

What shall I get? They got sau, and put a roll at each side of the door; these rolls were put there for people to sit on.

Then the house began to extend and grow wider and higher, and it became wonderful in size and in splendor. Just as daylight was coming the house was finished and ready. It stood there in the morning dawn, a mountain of beautiful flowers and oak-tree branches; all the colors of the world were on it, outside and inside.

The tree in the middle was far above the top of the house, and filled with acorns; a few of them had fallen on every side. That sweat-house was placed there to last forever, the largest and most beautiful building in the world, above or below. Nothing like it will ever be built again. All the people in the world will like this house. They will talk about it and speak well of it always. This house will last forever, and these flowers will bloom forever; the roots from which they grow can never die.

The world fire began on the morning after the sweat-house was finished. During the fire they could see nothing of the world below but flames and smoke. Olelbis did not like this. There is a very old man, Kahit Kiemila, and he lives far north toward the east, outside the first sky. He stays there in one little place; he is all alone, and always in the same place. Tell him what to do, [ Pg 20] and he will do it. He sits with his head between his hands and his face to the north, and never looks up. The first person who came to Olelbis on the day of the fire was Kiriu Herit. He came about daylight.

Kiriu went to the top of the house and looked. This was Lutchi Herit. Two more came and saluted Olelbis. These were the two brothers, Tilichi. A fifth person came, Kuntihle, and then a sixth, Sutunut, a great person. Kahit cannot take me! She lives not far from him. Her house is in the ground. And tell him to blow his whistle with all his breath. Put these two feathers on his cheeks just in front of his ears.

Lutchi went quickly. No one could travel as fast as he. He reached the sky on the north, raised and propped it. Sutunut gave the message to Kahit, who raised his head from between his hands slowly and turned toward the south. Sutunut put the feathers in his cheeks then, as Olelbis had commanded. I am in a hurry to see my father, Olelbis. I will follow you. His mother was Mem Loimis. I will help you forward. Olelbis made then an oak paddle, and hurled it [ Pg 22] to where Sotchet was. Sotchet caught the paddle, made a tail of it, put it on, and went plashing along through the water.

Not far from Kahit lived an old woman, Yoholmit Pokaila. She made a basket of white willow, and finished it just as Mem Loimis was ready to start. In the same place was Sosini Herit, just ready to move. In one hand he held a bow and arrows, with the other he was to swim. Olelbis saw all this,—saw and knew what people were doing or preparing to do. Kahit is ready. All the people around them will follow. The great fire was blazing, roaring all over the earth, burning rocks, earth, trees, people, burning everything.

Mem Loimis started, and with her Kahit. Water rushed in through the open place made by Lutchi when he raised the sky. It rushed in like a crowd of rivers, covered the earth, and put out the fire as it rolled on toward the south. There was so much water outside that could not come through that it rose to the top of the sky and rushed on toward Olelpanti. Olelbis went to the top of the sweat-house and stood looking toward the north.

Sula Kiemila and Toko Kiemila had come that morning. Olelbis saw everything coming toward him in the water from the north, all kinds of people who could swim. They were so many that no one could count them. Of this he made a sling. He put his hand to the west, and kilson came on it, a round white stone an inch and a half in diameter. He put the stone in the sling, tied the sling around his head, and kept it there always. He took this sling in his hand now, and stood watching ready to throw the stone at something that was coming in the water.

Olelbis threw with his left hand. He was left-handed, and for this reason was called Nomhlyestawa throwing west with the left hand. Mem Loimis went forward, and water rose mountains high. Following closely after Mem Loimis came Kahit. He had a whistle in his mouth; as he moved forward he blew it with all his might, and made a terrible noise.

The whistle was his own; he had had it always. He came flying and blowing. He looked like an enormous bat, with wings spread. As he flew south toward the other side of the sky, his two cheek feathers grew straight out, became immensely long, waved up and down, grew till they could touch the sky on both sides. And he gave her two [ Pg 24] new names, Surut Womulmit hair-belt woman and Mem Hlosmulmit water-foam woman. Grow all the time! Be deep so that I can float and float on, float all my life. Olelbis was watching everything closely.

Sosini Herit was coming. He held a bow and arrows in one hand and swam with the other.

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He was next behind old Yoholmit. Olelbis stood ready to use his sling. When Yoholmit was coming near, he hurled a stone at her. He did not hit her. He did not wish to hit her. He hit the basket and sent her far away east in it until the basket struck the sky. When the water reached Toko, it divided, went east and west, went no farther south in Olelpanti. At this time Olelbis saw a hollow log coming from the north. On it were sitting a number of Tede Memtulit and Bisus people. Just behind the log came some one with a big willow-tree in his mouth, sometimes swimming east, sometimes swimming west.

He slapped the water with his new tail, making a loud noise. This was Sotchet, the son [ Pg 25] of Mem Loimis. Olelbis struck the log with a stone from his sling, and threw it far away west with all the Memtulits on it except one, which came to the sweat-house and said,—. Next came Wokwuk. He was large and beautiful, and had very red eyes. When Kahit came flying toward the sweat-house, and was still north of it, Olelbis cried to him,—. Kahit flew off toward the east and sent Mem Loimis back.

Go back! If not, I will stop you. Go home! Mem Loimis went back north, went into the ground where she had lived before. Kahit went east, then turned and went north to where he had been at first, and sat down again in silence with his head between his hands. When Mem Loimis and Kahit had gone home, all water disappeared; it was calm, dry, and clear again everywhere. Olelbis looked down on the earth, but could see nothing: no mountains, no trees, no ground, nothing but naked rocks washed clean. He stood and looked in every direction,—looked east, north, west, south, to see if he could find anything.

He found nothing. After a time he saw in the basin of a great rock some water, all that was left. The rock was in Tsarau Heril. Look everywhere, there is nothing in the world below but naked rocks. Perhaps we can.

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On this earth there was no river, no creek, no water in any place but that water at Tsarau Heril. And they the disciples gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. And he took it, and did eat before them, Luke In John, chapter 21, the implication was that He also ate fish at a third appearance. This time it was for breakfast! Yahshua gave examples showing that bread and clean fleshy foods are good to give to children; If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone?

Or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent? Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion? Luke Did you notice that Yahshua used, as examples, serpents and scorpions that are unclean? Noah lived to be years old, but after many generations, a rare individual lived to be around years old. Yahweh evidently wanted it this way. And that may be one reason why meats were introduced after the flood.

And Yahweh said; My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years years , Genesis It was after this announcement that the flood came and Yahweh allowed meat to be added to the diet of man. It should be pointed out that the years may have been the actual years to the flood from the point and time of Genesis A study of the Jubilees i.

Yahweh's Word has much depth and meaning for those willing to study things out. We find further along in time in Psalms 90 that a man could live to be 80 years old if he had strength. It seems that Moses saw men living to be 80 years old on average at that time, and only if they were in good health. Interestingly enough, Moses lived to be years old, and then was laid to rest. Today in America, the quality of life and life expectancy is starting to drop even more sharply for those following unbiblical diets. Vegetarians can live longer than meat eaters do, and some of them up to 12 years and longer.

This has been documented. The question is, why? We have molars for crushing and grinding. Ours move from side to side for grinding.

3. Leviticus

Our saliva is alkaline and contains ptyalin for the digestion of starch. Our stomachs are oblong in shape, complicated in structure, and convoluted with duodenum. Our intestines are twelve times the length of our trunks and designed to keep food in them until all the nutrients are extracted. Our livers have the capacity to eliminate only a small amount of uric acid. All meat consumption releases large quantities of uric acid into the system.

The liver of a carnivore secretes much greater amounts of bile in order to break down a high-fat meat diet. Our bodies simply have not been created to handle a diet high in meat or meat fats. Did you know it takes more than twice as long? Look at what happened to Daniel, who evidently knew something about eating right. He said to the overseeing commander, Please test your servants for ten days, and let us be given some vegetables to eat and water to drink. So he listened to them in this matter and tested them for ten days.

So the overseer continued to withhold their choice food and the wine they were to drink, and kept giving them vegetables, Daniel NASB. That is probably one of the best examples given in Scripture concerning a healthy diet. When someone comes to this country for the first time and views all the different kinds of food available in the stores we have, it is often overwhelming. Over one-third of Americans are now considered obese and over a third are considered overweight.

Obesity causes health problems. Being overweight, however, can also affect health negatively. Certainly our appearance is also affected for the worse. Proverbs says, For the drunkard and the glutton shall come to poverty: and drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags. We are currently a nation that is overweight and heavily in debt. A lot of the nourishment is not just in the essential minerals and vitamins that they provide, but also in molecular compounds and other beneficial things the scientists have yet to discover.

Doctor Gordon S. Chlorophyll, in plants we eat, helps build healthy blood in humans by supplying the blood with oxygen, nutrients and phytochemicals compounds in plants that protect our body against cancer and other diseases. Green grasses and green plants are rich sources of such important nutrients as beta-carotenes, antioxidants, digestible proteins, and fiber which help to sustain and protect us from illness and disease. This fibril plant sinew is something that is needed for good digestion and natural detoxification of the body. Fiber in the lower intestinal tract helps bind heavy metals, toxins, and chemicals and remove them from the body before they can be absorbed and cause damage to cells and tissues.

In Scripture, the number seven has the meaning of spiritual perfection. These seven foods did not mention animal meat. An idiom is a phrase expressing an idea other than the actual statement. The word honey Strongs , Hebrew word, debash, the root means, gummy in the Bible can actually mean two different things. The obvious meaning is honey from the honeycomb, such as the following, which says, My son, eat thou honey, because it is good; and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste, Proverbs We read in Genesis , And their father Israel said unto them, if it must be so now, do this; take of the best fruits in the land in your vessels, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and myrrh, nuts, and almonds.

Once it is eaten, it basically goes straight to the bloodstream. Doctors have for some time known that too much sugar is bad for you. About 75 percent of the sugar is hidden, and 20 percent of our diets are composed of white sugar or sucrose. This is extremely dangerous since sugar actually feeds cancer.

Hast thou found honey? Eat so much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it, Proverbs Man-made alternatives are still questionable and studies are still being done. However, the government has approved some, like NutraSweet aspartame , for human consumption. Birch sugar is also another option. Notice what happened to his eyes, "he put forth the end of the rod that was in his hand, and dipped it in an honeycomb, and put his hand to his mouth; and his eyes were enlightened" 1 Sam.

In verse 29b, it says, From what we know today, Jonathon may have suffered from hypoglycemia or even diabetes, but it is more likely that the battle he was said to have been in had depleted his energy. The honey, being able to go straight to the bloodstream, had an immediate effect on his body and his alertness. We can learn so much from the Bible. By following its instructions, we can live not only well physically, but also well spiritually.

It is understood that the latter is certainly more important than the former. For good health in both areas — to maintain and grow in both body and spirit — we need to read the manual and do what it says. Biblical food laws are not something antiquated. Make no mistake; we are to do what is right in His sight. If any man defile the temple of Elohim, him shall Elohim destroy; for the temple of Elohim is holy, which temple ye are, 1 Corinthians Each Scripture will be given and the commentary will follow.

Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him; because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats? And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man, Mark see also Matt. Mark continues to answer the question asked by the disciples concerning a parable in verse 15 which says, There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man.

Is this what really happened? If this is true, then it goes against other Scriptures in which He upheld the law, such as, Matthew ; John and John Is Yahshua double-minded? Absolutely not! There are certain Scripture verses that seem to say one thing, if taken out of context proof texting , but when considered within context say another.

In proper context, we find that the Pharisees and scribes were being addressed for their law of washing hands, something that could be seen by other men. Yahshua told them; Well hath Isaiah prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.

Howbeit in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. For laying aside the commandment of Elohim, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do. And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of Elohim, that ye may keep your own tradition, Mark In verse 13, Yahshua again reiterates this fact; …making the word of Elohim of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.

And there came a voice to him, Rise, Peter; kill, and eat. And the voice spake unto him again the second time, What Elohim hath cleansed, that call not thou common, Acts Was it, in fact, unclean animals or was it something else? In verse 10, Peter was hungry, so food was evidently on his mind.

Yahweh could have put actual food in front of him to eat. However, what Peter saw was a vision, and that vision had a specific meaning. Peter also struggled with the meaning of the symbolism in his vision. Peter never heard of any doing away with the law, as some religious leaders teach today. In context, we find that the animals were symbolic of gentiles who were at that time considered unclean by the Jews. Verse 28 says, …And he said unto them, Ye know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company, or come unto one of another nation; but Elohim hath shewed me that I should not call any man common or unclean.

Notice how Paul had rebuked him a few years earlier; Now when Peter had come to Antioch, I withstood him to his face, because he was to be blamed; for before certain men came from James, he would eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision.

And the rest of the Jews also played the hypocrite with him, so that even Barnabas was carried away with their hypocrisy, Galatians NKJV. Peter understood then, after the events in Acts, chapter 10, that Yahweh, as stated in Acts , …is no respecter of persons: But in every nation he that feareth Him, and worketh righteousness, is accepted with Him.

Peter baptized Cornelius, who was considered unclean, but he did not start eating unclean meat. Gentiles, not unclean animal meat, was the subject matter being described in the vision to Peter. Peter now understood this and so should we. Let not him that eateth despise him that eateth not; and let not him which eateth not judge him that eateth: for Elohim hath received him…I know, and am persuaded by the Master Yahshua, that there is nothing unclean of itself: but to him that esteemeth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean.

But if thy brother be grieved with thy meat, now walkest thou not charitably. Destroy not him with thy meat, for whom Messiah died, Romans , Were the Israelites? Are the Spiritual Israelites today allowed to eat unclean foods? His Son is credited with the same stability Heb.

Read our free ministudy, Why Biblical Law? The one who believes he can eat all things is referring to sacrificed animal meats. These, of course, would be clean animals chosen by brethren who were not weak, and who understood that pagan deities had no power over them, not even demons, 1 Cor.

And, though we are now allowed to add clean animal meat to our diets Gen. But take heed lest by any means this liberty understanding that pagan deities have no strength of yours become a stumbling block to them that are weak they think pagan deities have strength. The Apostle Paul further explained that the sacrificed food was not bad in itself, but that the joining in false worship with those who sacrificed to pagan deities was bad. The brethren, of course, would have avoided Biblically unclean meats altogether, but that is not the issue here. If an unbeliever invites you to his house and you wish to go, eat whatever is set before you animals that were sacrificed to pagan deities , raising no question on the ground of conscience you understand it doesn't matter.

I mean, of course, his conscience for he may think you condone the pagan sacrifice , not yours. If I eat with thankfulness, why should I be denounced because of what I am thankful for? Paul understood that those who were to receive this letter needed instruction concerning animals offered to idols as there were a lot of meats for sale in the markets that had been sacrificed.

The pagans were not wasteful, but rather, sold the sacrificed meats. The core of the problem was that some brethren were evidently becoming arrogant, causing problems, pointing fingers, and making fun of other weaker brethren, even to the point of ignoring their feelings, or worse yet, condemning them. Paul wanted it to stop and said; Now accept the one who is weak in faith, but not for the purpose of passing judgment on his opinions, Romans NASB.

Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3
Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3 Jeramiah The White Footed Mouse - Book 3

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